Co-composting of Fecal Sludge and Organic Solid Waste

Kumasi is the second largest city in Ghana, West Africa.With approximately 1 million inhabitants, the city is considered as an industrial center for timber, food processing, and soap manufacturing. Its residents are also actively engaged in woodwork, vehicle repair, footwear production, furniture manufacture, and metal fabrication.

Around 38% of Kumasi residents use public toilets. About 400 of these facilities are equipped with either flush toilets with a holding tank, or Kumasi ventilated improved pit (KVIP) latrines. The KVIP latrines are built with two pits per latrine (used alternatively) or one pit per latrine. An estimated 26% of the population use household water closets linked to septic tanks and seepage pits. Only 8% of the population is connected to a sewerage system; and the remaining 28% have no toilet facilities at all.


Dr. Olufunke Cofie
International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
West Africa Office