For decades, latrine-building projects, also known as "hardware subsidies", are recognized as a popular form of development assistance. The government or a large non-government organization usually installs the desired sanitation technology for free. However, several evidences suggest that this unsustainable practice eventually fail because the recipients lack "ownership" and individual motivation to use the facilities.
Recognizing the reasons for the projects’ failure, development agencies realize that they need alternative approaches to promote proper sanitation.
The Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) movement focuses on educating people living in communities that still practice open defecation. The organization presents the real risks associated with unsanitary practices and essentially "shaming" them enough to get motivated in acquiring improved sanitation facilities.