Pathogens are considered as a major pollutant of water bodies and come from various sources such as fecal pollution from humans, wildlife, and livestock. The presence of fecal bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) can serve as an indicator of the possibility of existence of other waterborne pathogens such as viruses and parasites.
Because of the health hazards associated with the presence of pathogens, identifying the source(s) of bacteria in a water body or water supply is of great importance particularly in the remediation and prevention of further bacterial contamination. A reliable method to determine the source(s) of contamination is therefore necessary. Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) techniques offer a new procedure in determining the source(s) of fecal pathogen contamination in environmental samples.