Untreated domestic wastewater on community reservoirs can cause major health and safety issues. Disinfection of wastewater usually by chemical means is therefore necessary to inactivate and destroy harmful organisms present.
Chlorination is the most common form of disinfection in wastewater treatment as well as for general disinfection and decontamination. It is cheap, widely available, and effective in destroying target organisms through oxidation of cellular material. The different forms of chlorine used include gaseous chlorine, calcium hypochlorite solution, and bromium chloride.